Work from 16th November
Work from 16th November
1. Vocabulary test:
Finish the word:
exp__________ to explain
ap_________ to open
Give the English:
accido, accidere, accidi
poena, poenae (f)
dignitas, dignitatis (f)
cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus
peritus, perita, peritus
testis, testis (m)
lateo, latere, latui
nescio, nescire, nescivi
2. A look at some conversational Latin to guess what it meant:
1) Salve / salvus sis / ave / have
3) sis / si placet / nisi molestum est / gratum erit si / amabo te
4) gratias tibi ago
5) ut vales? / quid agis? / quid fit?
6) est / est ita / etiam / ita / ita vero / sane / certe
7) non / non ita / minime
8) age / agedum
11) di te perdant
12) insanum bonum
3. Which person was doing the following verbs, and which tense of the subjunctive are they – imperfect or prluperfect?
4. Read p. 79 and translate the sentences
5. Reading p. 90 – 93
6. Some sources about Agricola, the governor of Britain, the Roman Army, the role of a governor and the occupation of Britain seen from the point of view of the Celts (Calgacus) and the Romans.
Tacitus, A Biography of Agricola 4.2-4
The mother of Agricola was Julia Procilla, a woman of exceptional moral integrity. He spent his boyhood and adolescence close by her side being gently trained in every aspect of honourable achievement. He was sheltered from the enticements of immorality not only by his virtuous and upright nature, but also because, as a young boy, he had as his residence and as a model for his behaviour Massilia (Marseille), a town which provided a mixture and blend of Greek refinement and provincial frugality. I remember that he himself said that he had, in his early youth, been more absorbed with philosophy than was proper for a Roman and a senator until his mother’s good sense brought under control his ardent and passionate nature.
Vegetius: De re military 1.1, 9; 2.25
We see that the Roman people have subjugated the whole world by no means other than thorough training in the use of weapons, strict discipline in the military camps, and proactive in warfare.
… We owe our success against all the other people to our skilful hardening of young soldiers with daily exercise; to our acquainting them in field manoeuvres with everything that can happen on the march and in battles; and to our severe punishment of idleness.
…. The legion ought to carry everywhere with it all the things which are considered necessary for every kind of warfare, so that wherever it builds its camp, it builds an armed city.
Ulpian, The Digest of Law 1.18
It pertains to the honourable reputation of the governor of a province that the more powerful men do not injure the more humble, and that their supporters do not harass the innocent with false accusations.
Tacitus, A Biography of Agricola 29, 31
Among the many British war chiefs was one named Calgacus, who was preeminent in valour and in birth. He is reported to have addressed in the following manner the assembled crowd of Britons who were clamouring for battle.
“… Up until this day, we who live in this last strip of land and last home of liberty have been protected by our very remoteness …But now the farthest limits of Britain have been opened up … Beyond us, there are no tribes, nothing except waves and rocks and, more dangerous that these, the Romans, whose oppression you have in vain tried to escape by obedience and submission. Plunderers of the world they are, and now that there is no more territory left to occupy their hands which have already laid the world waste, they are scouring the seas. If the enemy is rich, they are greedy; if the enemy is poor, they are power-hungry. Neither east nor west has been able to sate them. Alone of all men they covet rich nations and poor nations with equal passion. They rob, they slaughter, they plunder – and they call it ‘empire’. Where they make a waste-land, they call it ‘peace’.
Tacitus, Histories 4.74
Tyranny and war always existed in Gaul until you yielded to our authority. And we, although we have been provoked many times, have imposed upon you by the right of conquest only this one demand: that you pay the costs of keeping peace here. For peace among different peoples cannot be maintained without troops, and troops cannot be maintained without pay, and pay cannot be found without taxation. In other respects we are equals. You yourselves often command our legions and govern this and other provinces. You are in no respect excluded or shut out. … But if the Romans are driven out – may the gods forbid! – what situation could exist except wars among all these races? The structure of our empire has been consolidated by 800 years of good fortune and strict organisation, and it cannot be torn apart with that destroying those who tear it apart. … Therefore love and cherish peace and the city of Rome which you and I, conquered and conqueror, hold with equal rights.
pp. 80 – 81 and vocabulary on p.104