Work from 2nd November
Work from 2nd November
(Answers in the Answer sheet)
Fill the gaps and give the English
Vocabulary 2nd November
aperio, aperire, ________, apertum
castra, -orum (n.pl.)
dignitas, dignitatis ()
explico, _________, explicavi, explicates
lateo, latere, ______
nescio, nescire, nescivi
scelestus, scelesta, ________
Decide to which column the verbs on the ‘Indicative or Subjunctive’ sheet belong and draw and arrow to the appropriate side. For those that are subjunctive, decide on the person of the verb and whether it is imperfect (to be translated as ‘were doing’) or pluperfect (to be translated as ‘had done’).
Indicative or Subjunctive?
Read page 76 (Translations on the sentences into English in the answer sheet)
Reading Modestus Perfuga, I, II and III with question sheets to help with II and III
Modestus perfuga II (gap fill)
Having said these words, Modestus _____________________________________.
Someone was trying to open the door of Vercobrix’s cell and escape!
‘I must flee from jail’ ________________________________________________.
Modestus, _____________________________________________, ran to the door of the cell and shut it.
‘Vercobrix, you must remain in your cell!’ shouted Modestus.’Hurray! _______ ___________________! _________________________________________!
Hurray! Now the centurion cannot harm me because ______________________
However, Modestus remained worried; for he did not know _________________
____________, to Strythio. Suddenly he caught sight of _________________-
Modestus perfuga III
1. How did Modestus begin to avenge Strythio’s death (lines 1 – 2)?
2. What mistake did he make?
3. In line 6 how does Modestus’ tone change from ‘num vivus es? to ‘cur vivus es?’
4. What question did Modestus ask Strythio (line7)?
5. What answer and explanation did Strythio give?
6. ‘quid facere debemus’ (line 10). What was Strythio’s reply? What was his reason?
Background section of Stage 25
A few paragraphs from Josephus’ ‘History of the Jewish War’, shows how he (and others in the ancient world) viewed the Roman Army:
If you study carefully the organisation of the Roman army, you will realise that they possess their great empire as a reward for valour, not as a gift of fortune. For the Romans, the wielding of arms does not begin with the outbreak of war, nor do they sit idly in peacetime and move their hands only in times of need. Quite the opposite! As if born for the sole purpose of wielding arms, they never take a break from training, never wait for a situation requiring arms. Their practice sessions are no less strenuous than real battles. Each soldier trains every day with all hi energy as if in war. And therefore they bear the stress of battle with the greatest ease. No confusion causes them to break from their accustomed formation, no fear causes them to shrink back, no exertion tires them. Certain victory always attends them since their opponents are never equal to them...
….Absolute obedience to officers creates an army which is well behaved in peacetime and which moves as a single body when in battle – so cohesive are the ranks, so correct are the turns, so quick are the soldiers ears for orders, eyes for signals, and hands for action..
How things had changed from Caesar’s first invasion of Britain over 120 years earlier! Here is an extract from Caesar’s ‘Gallic Wars’!
Extract from Caesar’s Gallic War (Caesar, Bellum Gallicum IV)
Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae: primo per omnes partes perequitant et tela coniciunt, atque ipso terrore equorum et strepitu rotarum ordines plerumque perturbant. et, cum se inter equitum turmas insinuaverunt, ex essedis desiliunt et pedibus proeliantur. aurigae interim paulatim ex proelio excedunt atque ita currus collocant ut, si illi a multiudine hostium premantur, expeditum ad suos receptum habeant. ita mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem peditum in proeliis praestant; ac tantum usu cotidiano et exercitatione efficient ut in declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere et brevi moderari ac flectare et per temonem percurrere et in iugo insistere et inde se in currus citissime recipere consuerint.
Quibus rebus perturbatis nostris novitate pugnae tempore opportunissimo Caesar auxilium tulit. namque eius adventu hostes constiterunt, nostri se ex timore reciperunt. Quo facto, ad lacessendum et ad committendum proelium alienum esse tempus arbitratus, suo se loco continuit et, brevi tempore intermisso, in castra legiones reduxit.
(Translation in the answers sheet)