Exeter University Liaison
PROJECT TEAM: Bertram Brockington, Carol McCullough, Trudi Learmouth.
Administrator: Helen Cleasby
We have members on the Exeter Animal Welfare & Ethical Review Group (Olwen Goodall) and the Social Sciences and International Studies Ethics Committee (Peter Cleasby).
The University Liaison Project Team is not a 'group' like the many groups in Exeter U3A: we are a team working to make a mutually beneficial link between Exeter U3A and 'our' University of Exeter.
We arrange talks by top academics, presentations by research students and help develop research opportunities for U3A members.
These events are open to all Exeter U3A members.
Please note we expect confirmation of bookings to be sent out at the latest a fortnight before the event.
On the 3rd of March 2016, Exeter U3A signed a formal Memorandum of Understanding with the University of Exeter.
A History of our Project can be found in Links
FUTURE EVENTS and RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES
For PUBLIC EVENTS at the University please see University Events
FOCUS GROUP ON DEMENTIA
I’m the press and media manager for the University of Exeter Medical School, and I’m also studying a Masters in Science Communication at the University of the West of England. I wondered if U3A might be willing to help out with an element of my studies? I’m looking to recruit for some focus groups of people aged 50+, to test a questionnaire and two sort videos I’m creating for part of an experiment. I’m working with our Dean and dementia researcher, Professor Clive Ballard, on his PROTECT study – an online study which has 25,000 people aged 50 and over signed up. Using a suite of highly sensitive cognitive tests, it aims to investigate how the brain ages and what factors really help people to stay mentally sharp in later life. As it’s all online, people can take part from their home computers.
In my study. I’m investigating two elements:
1: What motivates people to sign up to PROTECT
2: Whether a narrative approach or a more statistical-based approach are more effective in recruiting people to PROTECT (using two videos to be promoted on Facebook).
The focus groups would be conducted over the next month and I would be more than happy to talk to members about any element they may find interesting
Please contact Louise Vennells: L.Vennells@exeter.ac.uk
My number is 07768 511866 if it’s easier to have a chat.
For a study looking at the effects of:
ACUTE DOSE-RESPONSE EFFECTS OF 100% CACAO (CHOCOLATE) CONSUMPTION ON BLOOD VESSEL HEALTH AND GLUCOSE CONTROL
Researchers at University of Exeter require gentlemen aged 40 - 65 years who are healthy, non-smokers and not currently taking medication to participate in research investigating the health benefits of consuming different CHOCOLATE doses.
Participation will involve 4 visits at St. Luke’s campus vascular laboratory. Assessments of your blood vessel health (using ultrasound and laser) as well as blood samples will be taken during each visit while drinking either cacao or placebo.
You will be provided with feedback on your vascular health and glucose control and overall findings
For more information please contact the research team at firstname.lastname@example.org Tel:07908 478452
Dr Paola Wollmann
Sport and Health Sciences
College of Life and Environmental Sciences
St Luke's Campus
ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF SHATAVARI SUPPLEMENTATION ON BONE AND MUSCLE HEALTH IN WOMEN
Dr O’Leary and Prof Bowtell, University of Exeter’s Department of Sport and Health Sciences, are running a research study to examine whether shatavari root, which is available over the counter as a dietary supplement in the UK, supports bone and muscle health. During the menopause, the level of some hormones (oestrogens) in the body falls. Shatavari root has been found to contain substances that have similar effects to oestrogens and it may prevent some of the long-term consequences of the menopause, including the loss of bone density and muscle bulk. This study will examine whether this is the case.
For the actual research study, the team are looking for women aged 60 or older. Participating in the study will involve three visits to The University of Exeter’s St. Luke’s Campus. Each visit will take about an hour.
Additional participants are now required for this study. Please contact Mary O'Leary: M.OLeary@exeter.ac.uk
University of Exeter and Exeter U3A SHARED LEARNING PROJECT
ANCIENT RECIPES FOR HAPPINESS AND HAPPINESS IN THE THIRD AGE
INTRODUCTORY EVENT FOR INTERESTED PARTICIPANTS:
Tuesday 24th September, 10.30 a.m.-12.30 p.m.
Senior Common Room, Queen’s Building, Streatham Campus
16 places available for this event
Tea, coffee, and cake will be provided.
Gabriele Galluzzo (philosopher) and Sanja Djerasimovic (education researcher) from the University of Exeter would like to collaborate with members of Exeter U3A, and develop a shared learning project on happiness, and how ancient ideas on happiness compare against modern experiences of it. Up to ten members of Exeter U3A would work with Gabriele and Sanja, and a number of university students, on this intergenerational project: developing questions, conducting interviews in the community, and writing up the results into materials that would be presented at a joint event in the spring of 2020. The aim of the project is for its participants to learn from each other’s experiences as much as from the ancients, and share this knowledge with others in both the academic and Uo3A community. It is expected that the project would take around six months to complete, with a very flexible pattern of participation, but some expectation of time commitment over this period.
As an introduction and the first step in developing the project, we would like to invite interested members to attend an ideas-sharing event at the University of Exeter.
At the event, Gabriele will give a short talk about the timeless issues surrounding the concept of happiness that have been discussed among philosophers since ancient Greece, and invite members to think about how these old ideas can inspire questions that have relevance for them today.
Sanja will give a short talk on conducting an interview-based study, and invite members to discuss how social science methods can best be adopted to answer their questions.
To book a place on this event please email us at email@example.com stating full name, membership number and contact email address. Please include the date of the event in the subject line of your email.
GOING DUTCH? COMPARING THE LAW ON ASSISTED SUICIDE
In his talk on the 20th of December, Dr Adam McCann initially compared the law on assisted dying in the Netherlands, Switzerland and within England and Wales.
The talk then split into three parts focusing upon the law as it stands in England and Wales:
- The law on assisted dying
- The ethics of assisted dying
- The politics behind assisted dying
LAW: We explored the differences between the law in England and Wales divided into
- the law ‘in the book’ and
- the law ‘in action’
LAW IN ACTION: Having explored the law as it stands here at present the example was given that of the 138 cases of assisted suicide reported to the DPP since 2009 NONE have been taken to court.
ETHICS: Dr McCann further looked in some depth at the ethics of assisted dying and then explored the question:
Why are politicians so unwilling to reform the law on assisted dying in England and Wales?
POLITICS: Exploring what Dr McCann called political game theory which, in essence highlights the fact that:
- politicians want re-election
- no pressure from special interest groups such as the GMC to reform
- no re-election interests in putting “assisted dying” on the manifesto – thus
NO CHANGE IN THE LAW
MUSICAL WORLDS AND THE EXTENDED MIND 14th February, 2019
In his lecture Dr Joel Krueger, both a philosopher and cognitive scientist, ‘extended’ the minds of some thirty-five U3A attendees with a fascinating lecture on musical worlds and the extended mind.
He initially highlighted some general ideas concerning cognition:
Apparently within the past few decades, many in philosophy and cognitive science have questioned the ‘neural sufficiency assumption’ – the notion that neural mechanisms are always and everywhere sufficient for cognition – i.e. the mind = the brain. According to ‘4E Cognition’, minds are embodied, embedded, enactive and perhaps even extended. Cognition is not just in the head. It routinely spills out into, and through the body, as well as the surrounding environment.
A central feature of 4E approaches is the notion of ‘offloading’ – i.e. we think and feel using resources from our bodies and the surrounding environment. Offloading occurs when we use physical actions to alter the information-processing requirements of a task to reduce the cognitive load. We offload onto ‘cognitive scaffolding’ which are the artefacts, processes and environments which amplify and regulate our cognitive capacities. A dynamic feedback mechanism from these processes transforms our cognition, i.e. otherwise inaccessible forms of cognition become available to us, e.g. enhanced memory.
It can therefore be concluded that the cognitive process extends across brain-body-world interactions. And so extended mind theorists claim that part of the ‘machinery’ of cognition extends beyond brain and body, the so called ‘location claim’, and secondly, the ‘beyond the head machinery’ like smartphones, MP3 players, are actually part of our cognitive processes, the so called ’constitution claim’.
Dr Krueger then posed the question: ‘what about the extended mind and art?’ Specifically,’ what about the extended mind and music?’
The main idea according to Dr Krueger is that philosophers should pay more attention to the everyday materiality of music, which illuminates how we use music to construct musical worlds. We play music – we use it as scaffolding for constructing a self-styled micro soundworld – and then by temporarily inhabiting this soundworld, we offload some of the emotional and regulatory functions that normally fall within the scope of our internal capacities.
In other words, music is a resource for creating musically scaffolded worlds that afford offloading. Two key ideas are that firstly, music is always embedded in artefacts of material culture which shape how we experience music and what to do with it. Secondly, micro environments or musical worlds afford us on demand “hear and now” synchronic self regulation of our emotions and attention. By virtue of their portability and personalised character, MP3 players and smartphones are powerful tools for on-demand self care.
In shared open- plan office settings, workers routinely use music to construct ‘auditory bubbles’. These individualised soundworlds within public spaces, help reclaim individual space, occluding environmental distractions by creating preferred auditory environments which are conducive to work. They also provide synchronic resources to help manage attention spans, feelings and energy.
We also use music to intensify our moods like choosing to listen to ‘happy’ music or ‘melancholic’ music - a way of exploring emotion. This can be a cathartic experience - when scaffolded by music, the experience of grief e.g., takes on a particular intensity, depth and temporal character. There is a functional gain. Clarke (2018) suggests that the music may also function as a kind of virtual other, empathic presence, providing comfort and insight. This may explain the motivation to listen to sad music when sad. ‘Musicking’ (any activity involving or related to music performance, listening, rehearsing, composing) is a richly cross-modal, whole body experience.
Dr Krueger further explained that music also solicits entrainment responses. In the biomusicological sense, entrainment refers to the synchronisation of humans (and some organisms) to an external perceived rhythm, pulse or beat. e.g. tapping foot to the rhythm of music or dance. Dr Krueger showed us two highly entertaining youtube video clips of a toddler at the back of a singing choir seemingly spontaneously conducting the singing, and a baby suddenly waking to music and moving into rhythmic arm movements in beat to the music. Music entrainment is the ‘glue’ which links the listener with the musical scaffolding at neural, physiological and behavioural levels.
Noteworthy is that we are vulnerable to musical worlds that are not of our making. With reference to various empirical studies, Dr Krueger described weaponised musical worlds and involuntary offloading. Our attention and emotion can be co-opted and behaviour can be regulated in deep and subtle ways. It is well established that loud music is used as an element of detention and “harsh interrogation” by USA authorities as part of the so-called “global war on terror”. Loud music is played both to groups of prisoners as well as during individual interrogations. The body is bombarded with relentless acoustical energy which elicits an array of neurophysiological entrainment responses and experiences beyond personal control. This loud relentless weaponised musical world in which music becomes sheer sound, results in prisoners becoming unwilling parts of a musically extended cognitive system losing a sense of space and any ability to self regulate. There is also apparently ample evidence that background music while shopping has a significant influence on both what consumers buy and how much they will pay.
Dr Krueger then posed the question: ‘What about empathy?’
Musical worlds can be organised to promote cooperation and affiliation. Various empirical studies have demonstrated how participants report feeling more connected when rocking together in a musical space. Children who repeatedly participated in rhythmically organised musical interactions subsequently behaved more cooperatively and empathically than children who engaged in non musical activities. By synchronising to the same beat or melody we become physiologically and behaviourally entrained with one another. According to Cross (2007), musical scaffolding enhances our attention and motor coordination, and strengthens our experience of interpersonal cohesion and empathic affiliation.
Music is therefore both a medium and an environment for empathy as was demonstrated in a video clip of a music therapist working with a man with severe autistic behaviour and the connectedness established between the therapist and the patient through playing musical instruments.
There was considerable discussion and questions were asked. U3A members told of their own experiences including creating a musical world with people who have severe dementia and the sense of real connectedness with them that ensues; description of creating musical worlds with prenatal babies in neonatal intensive care units to promote a healthy growing environment; movements of infants attuned to the rhythm in mother’s voice, earworms, and more…..
We all agreed it was a most fascinating, informative and stimulating topic. Thank you Dr Krueger!
LECTURE ON A PROPOSED STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF THE SHATIVARI PLANT ON BONE AND MUSCLE HEALTH IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN
3rd April 2019
Dr. Mary O'Leary opened her talk by explaining that the Shatavari plant – Asparagus racemosus is part of the Asparagus family of plants and grows in India and Nepal. It is one of many plants used in the ancient Ayurvedic system of medicine originating in the Indian subcontinent and has been used as an aphrodisiac and to encourage breast milk in nursing mothers increasing infant weight gain. Shatavari contains phyto-oestrogens and steriodal saponins.
Through various graphs she illustrated that the menopause triggers a dramatic drop in oestrogen and a subsequent loss of bone and muscle mass (unlike men of a similar age). Bone mass loss can also increase the incidence of Type II diabetes. Scares about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) have damaged its reputation and uptake is now low so there is a search for an alternative therapy – perhaps Shatavari?
Dr. O'Leary's study is looking for women who are over 60, with a body mass index (BMI) of under 30, no osteoporosis or taking medicines to prevent this condition and who have not had HRT in the last 5 years. The Trial of the Shatavari plant will be supplied with the supplement by Pukka Herbs but Dr. O'Leary emphasised that the company had no input into the design of this study.
24 women are sought and 12 will be given a placebo and 12 the Shatavari supplement over a 6 week period. You will be required to make three visits to the labs, the first to discuss your input in the trial, the second and third (without previously having breakfast) to take blood samples and (under local anaesthetic) a muscle biopsy, plus tests of leg strength and hand grip which will take approximately 1 to 1.5 hours. You are offered breakfast after the visit (if you wish). There were lots of questions about the muscle biopsy and we were reassured that gentle aftercare and no immersion in water for 5 days would result in complete healing.
25 Women attended this lecture and if you are interested in taking part in the trial or want to ask more questions, please contact Dr. Mary O'Leary via her email M.Oleary@exeter.ac.uk
WHY GRAMMAR MATTERS, 10th April 2019
Fifty two U3A members atended this talk by Dr. Sue Jones, which was actually entitled “Grammar to Shape Meaning”. Traditional methods of teaching multiplication tables, cursive handwriting (now abandoned in countries such as Finland in favour of touch typing and speed texting) and grammar have gone in and out of vogue in the last few years. Despite the fact that a good command of language and knowledge of grammar is very important for the authors of training manuals, scientific reports, minutes of meetings, legal documents etc., the teaching of grammar was abandoned in the 1960s. It was thought to stifle creativity. When the teaching of grammar was restored to the curriculum in 1995, many teachers found themselves to be in the position of having to teach a subject which they themselves had not been taught. Dr. Jones herself had not encountered formal grammar until she needed it to learn French.
It quickly became apparent that Dr. Jones’ research was carried out mainly with reference to “creative” writing, a subject not really taught to most of us who had studied English Language and English Literature for G.C.E. ‘O’ Level. Her research had involved interviewing writers such as Hilary Mantel and exploring how they felt about grammar. Some would ignore grammar completely. (Think of Kerouac’s “stream of consciousness” writing). Others use poetic licence to break the rules for effect. For example, there are quite a few well known sentences beginning with “And”. Thus, Michael Morpurgo:- “And out of the mists came a figure in flowing green, walking across the water”. Many writers have strong feelings about the use of grammar, perhaps because it is ingrained, drummed into them in their early years. Author Philip Pullman, writing in “The Guardian” in 2005, was very much against the idea of giving young children formal instruction relating to syntax and parts of speech. He claimed that such instruction was recommended by “the political right to make children better writers, politer, more patriotic and less likely to become pregnant”! He was scathing about the “common sense” approach which, he felt, stifled the creative approach. Dr. Jones asked her audience to stop and think about how they had learned grammar, whether they had good “grammar knowledge” and what they thought was the value of grammatical knowledge.
She continued with some observations about how young children gradually acquired the use of language. She observed that, to a certain extent, they learned how to apply some of the rules without knowing of the existence of those rules. For example, a small child might say “I digged the garden”, illustrating an understanding of the past tense, despite declining the verb incorrectly. Dr. Jones suggested that the teaching goal was to open a repertoire of infinite possibilities for young children rather than teaching them very precise ways of communicating. Most important was “learning how to mean”.
This led on to discussion about the ordering of a sentence such as the above-mentioned words of Michael Morpurgo or in Charles Dickens’ description of Magwitch. We thought about where the emphasis would be put when such sentences were read aloud and how the meaning could be altered by reordering the phrases in a sentence. This, then, is the element of creativity – manipulating descriptive phrases, as opposed to writing simple factual sentences. This led on to a class exercise in which noun phrases, relative clauses, prepositional phrases etc. could be used to develop character and paint pictures. Various examples of such phrases were suggested. E.g. “sporting an unnaturally thick neck”, “bald and brown-eyed”, “with a mouth ready to smile even when at rest” etc. This sort of grammar teaching at secondary level could help children who were not instinctively creative to realise that they could in fact write creatively.
The conclusion was that the way forward was to integrate grammar meaningfully into teaching and show students how their grammatical choices could affect meaning. Teaching of grammar was not so much about obedience to rules as about the nurturing of a repertoire which could generate infinite possibilities. And, of course, most important of all, is to read.
The event had to be drawn to a close due to time constraints, but there was nevertheless some animated discussion afterwards. It is to be hoped that the enthusiasm of teachers such as Dr. Jones will help young people to continue the great tradition of English literature in spite of the period of technological revolution in which we are living.
ANCIENT RECIPES FOR WELLBEING, 30th April 2019
Thirty eight members attended this workshop facilitated by Dr Gabriele Galluzzo.
Unbelievably, nothing to do with food. My greed was not assuaged until later provided with a satisfactory lunch. Rather, an excellent Powerpoint-assisted presentation in the morning, followed by small group discussions and plenary in the afternoon, both of which provided much food for thought, a veritable feast of the mind. (I’ll stop the food-related analogies now, I promise).
The presentation was an analysis of two schools of philosophical thought, Virtue Ethics (Stoics) and Life of Pleasure (Epicurus). I wasn’t familiar with either of these philosophies, so hope I have managed to understand and outline what each constituted.
In essence, Virtue Ethics is about character building, of moderation and self-control. The Stoic worldview equates happiness with living according to nature, an optimistic outlook on the world and our role in it. My understanding of this philosophy was of a life lived with the good of society its principal tenet.
The Epicurean Worldview, Epicurus’ Life of Pleasure, is predicated on the belief that life has no meaning apart from the one we choose to give it, but we can make the most of it by trying to maximise the things that are beneficial to us and avoid those that are harmful. My understanding here was of Epicureanism being a philosophy with individual happiness at its core.
Group discussions centred around two topics, viz:
Quality versus quantity of life
Pleasure versus virtues (selfishness versus altruism).
Interesting and lively discussions ensued. Much to digest! (Sorry, couldn’t resist). My only small quibble - it was often difficult to hear the questions/viewpoints put forward by audience members in the plenary session. Despite this, I found this workshop stimulating and thought-provoking, so much so that I have expressed interest in participating in follow-up sessions.
TO BEARD OR NOT TO BEARD - THE SURPRISING HISTORY OF FACIAL HAIR, 19th June 2019
Fifteen Exeter U3A members (including two bearded men) enjoyed a lively and interactive session
with Dr Alun Withey, Senior Lecturer in History in the Centre for Medical History. Alun has been
working on a project backed by the Wellcome Trust, 'The history of facial hair 1650 – 1900,'
mainly looking at this country – although worldwide, beards have always carried significant
meaning, in line with local cultures , often being seen as a rite of passage from the fresh-faced
beauty of youth to 'nature's mark of manhood.'
Here, attitudes have constantly shifted and the working man would emulate their leaders just
as fashions follow celebrities today. The 'spade' beard of Henry VIII's time represented a spade
to bury the enemy. The thin pointed style of Van Dyke and Francis Drake was the 'stiletto'
beard. Later, the austere Puritan beliefs of the Roundheads saw a beard called a 'fatuous
bauble' and led to insistence on clean shaving, with ideas such as 'the cult of youth' and
'opening the countenance' symbolising an open mind. Beards were confined to 'rustics' and
For many years there was a strong connection with medicine. In the 17th Century all hair was
thought to originate deep in the body, bringing waste products (even the residue of the
production of sperm) to the outside, and relieving heat in the brain. Abundant hair was
therefore encouraged – an earlier restorer being made of smashed-up bees mixed with 'sallad
oile.' Early barbers were also surgeons – Henry VIII established 'The Worshipful Company of
Barber/Surgeons.' As beards became smaller and then disappeared, barbers had queues down
the street. Razors, soap and mirrors being very expensive, it was cheaper for the working man
to visit a barber twice-weekly, especially on Saturday night ready for Church the following
morning. Rather alarmingly, London barbers were shaving 60 men an hour (including
lathering), with cut-throat razors. In the mid-18th Century however, surgery became its own
profession. The work and status of barbers decreased as razors were increasingly sold to the
public by instrument-makers and cutlers, together with 'shave-yourself' manuals.
Clean shaving lasted for well over 150 years, all during the 18th Century and into the mid-19th
Century, by which time ordinary women, who had featured very little in recorded history, were
starting to have a voice. In response to this, and other societal changes: the Industrial
Revolution, the emergence of science, and the far-flung explorations of the Victorian heroes,
men decided that the way to emphasise their hardness, decisiveness and toughness was to
grow huge bushy beards. 'Men need a beard, as they go out to work,' they thought; a beard
kept the throat and chest protected, trapped smogs and smuts, and disguised acne. Prisoners
were allowed 'chinstrap' beards, skirting their jawlines. To achieve this they were given razors
– with predictable results....
By the start of the 19th Century the arguments about the health benefits of beards seemed a bit
silly and another trend for clean-shaving emerged, although until 1916, Army servicemen were
required to have a moustache (sailors were still allowed to have beards, to keep their faces
warm). Charlie Chaplin publicised the 'toothbrush' moustache, and fashions and debates over
facial, head and body hair have carried on. Until, continuing the medical link , we now have
'Movember - changing the face of Men's Health.'
'PALESTINE IS STILL THE ISSUE', 9th July, Professor Ilan Pappe
Around twenty Exeter U3A members enjoyed the most low-tech talk since we started our link with the University of Exeter! Prof Pappe sat on a stool with a glass of water next to him – no Powerpoint slides – not even a board pen – and no notes………….storytelling really.
As an Israeli academic and activist, he told us that whoever gave us a talk on the subject of Palestine would be biased in some way. This was a great way to start and very much endeared him to his audience.
Prof Pappe is one of Israel’s new historians who, since the release of British and Israeli government documents in the early 1980s, have been rewriting the history of Israel’s creation in 1948 and the corresponding flight of 700,000 Palestinians in the same year. He has called this ‘ethnic cleansing’ and documents the expulsion in his book The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, published in 2006. Prof Pappe blames the creation of Israel for the lack of peace in the Middle East, arguing that Zionism is more dangerous than Islamic militancy. Prof Pappe told us that he supports the one-state solution, which envisages a binational state for Palestinians and Israelis.
His work has been both supported and criticized by other historians. Before he left Israel in 2008, he had been condemned in the Knesset, Israel's parliament; a minister of education had called for him to be sacked; his photograph had appeared in a newspaper at the centre of a target; and he had received several death threats.
Prof Pappe answered a variety of questions from our usual challenging and stimulating U3A audience and we came away with a deeper insight into the complications of the Palestinian question.
STUDENTS’ GRAND CHALLENGES WEEK AND SHOWCASE, Friday 14th June 2019
As members of the University Liaison Project Team, we thoroughly enjoyed being invited to participate in the Student Grand Challenges event 2019. While we frequently engage with academics and postgraduate students undertaking research, it was a new and exciting opportunity for us to be involved with undergraduate students. We found the students we worked with inspirational in their enthusiasm and their interest in the area which we represented, Mental Health and the Elderly. They were very keen on the idea of interaction between the generations and exchanging skills and ideas; we were impressed by how quickly they understood some of the problems of the older generation and at the same time were able to see similarities between these and the mental health problems of their own much younger generation and how working together across the generation gap could prove enormously beneficial to both groups. Beyond the group we were closely involved with and considering the event as a whole, the week’s programme was really impressive and the outcomes from all the different groups were beyond any of my expectations. The final day’s formal presentation together with the displays in the Forum, which were open to all, was an amazing showcase of the high level achievement of these students in terms of their abilities, working together across disciplines, applying their energy and positive, can-do attitude to tackling some serious real-world issues. We came away with a real sense of optimism for the future in the hands of these young people, which was such a tonic given the pervasive doom and gloom that tends to surround us at the moment!
Trudi Learmouth and Carol McCullough
The BBSRC have published a report on Bioenergy based on eleven public dialogue events. Members of our U3A took part in one of these on 30th August 2013.
See Bioenergy in LINKS
BLUEBERRY SUPPLEMENTATION STUDY
Dr Jo Bowtell and her team have now published the results of the blueberry supplementation study: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/apnm-2016-0550?journalCode=apnm#.WL7rHNSLTs0 in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. The report also had some good coverage in the media and the team would like to thank everyone who took part for their help.
See Blueberry study in LINKS