Edinburgh

Current Science Group Programme 2019/20

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5 December 2019 (History of Science Lecture)
Brewster's Kaleidoscopes: Some Novel and Celebratory Investigations with Hands-on Opportunities
Presented by Philip Bradfield, Formerly Lecturer in Physics and Computer Science at the Universities of Edinburgh and Wolverhampton

Sir David Brewster [1781-1868] was an exception scientist (particularly in OPTICS), and an important public figure of his time. Initially trained for the Scottish Ministry, he found he had no temperament for public delivery of sermons. He worked his way up by tutoring and writing articles (many!) for Encyclopaedias.

He was a prolific writer and publicist, pressing the powers that be for more public recognition of and support for science. He played a central part in the early days of the British Association for Science, where he was often pitted against English Anglican political figures. His friendship with Lord Brougham was long-standing : a valuable ally.

He ended up first as Principal of the United Colleges at St Andrews, and finally Principal at Edinburgh. His statue has ended up outside the Chemistry Building at King's Buildings - the Physics Department was then still in town.
We are lucky that his daughter, ( Mrs Gordon) wrote a detailed and wide-ranging biography [1869] of her father:"The Home Life of Sir David Brewster", covering not just his "home/family" life but much of his actual science and zealous activities promoting science in the public realm. More recently, a splendid one-day Symposium was held in Edinburgh [ 1981], elegantly reported in
" 'Martyr of Science': Sir David Brewster 1781-1868 ", [1984] A D Morrison-Low and J R R Christie
published by Royal Scottish Museum Studies ISBN 0 9000733 29 2

Our kaleidoscope story will develop from his experiments exploring the generation of polarized light by reflection - "Brewster's Law" might ring a bell or two. His promotion of his "newly-invented" Kaleidoscope brought him very little financial gain - but I for one am grateful for his many true discoveries in Optics

The paper I wrote for the Brewster Society of America can be accessed :
https://brewstersociety.com/kaleidoscope-university/angle-analysis-in-kaleidoscopes/

19 December 2019
Genome engineering and agriculture: current opportunities and challenges
Presented by Professor Helen Sang, Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh

Genome engineering technologies for the introduction of novel genes into farmed animals and crops has been available for decades, with some GM crops produced in many countries and in large volumes, but with only one GM animal currently in production for food. The recent development of genome editing technologies, largely using the new tools developed from CRISPR/cas9, enable site-specific, designed genetic changes to be made in animal and plant genomes at high efficiency.

I will describe the development of gene-editing technologies and some exemplar applications, mainly in farmed animals, a major area of research at the Roslin Institute. The current focus of selection of targets for gene editing is on conferring resistance to major diseases, for example avian influenza, phenotypes that are challenging in most traditional selection programmes. Identifying genetic changes that will alter resistance to diseases depends on genomic sequence information, genetic mapping of variants in disease responses, and applying knowledge of the biological systems involved in infection.

The complex issues of existing regulations and policy changes to facilitate introduction of these new technologies, while respecting the concerns of society, need to be disentangled. Examples are being developed that are proof of principal of the great potential of genome editing technologies in farmed animals but it is not yet clear if these will be realised.

16 January 2020
A personal take on the opportunities and challenges of marine power
Presented by Beth Dickens, Director, Quoceant Ltd

My talk will cover the following topics:
• My background
• Why renewable energy (and marine power specifically)
• What is wave and tidal power
• What concepts for each already exist
• What are the benefits? And what’s their potential
• A potted history of my time working for Pelamis Wave Power – what we achieved and what we learnt.
• How the industry has changed in the last 5 years
• Where might it be going next…

20 February 2020
Carbon Capture and Storage
Presented by Allan Mathieson, CCS Team Leader, Senergy (Retired), U3A Member

19 March 2020
to be confirmed

16 April 2020
to be confirmed

21 May 2020
Artificial Intelligence: Past, Present and Future
Presented by Professor Michael Rovatsos, Professor of Artificial Intelligence, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh. Also Member of Centre for Intelligent Systems and their Applications, Director of Bayes Centre and Liaison Director of Alan Turing Institute.

18 June 2020
Probing the Dark Side of the Universe with Weak Gravitational Lensing
Presented by Ben Giblin, Research Cosmologist at Royal Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh

There are no group meetings in July and August.
Past Talks

19 September 2019
The benefits and limitations of employing alternative, non-rodent models to investigate the toxicity of nanomaterials
Presented by Dr Helinor Johnston, Associate Professor of Toxicology, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot Watt University
Nanomaterials (NMs) are defined as having at least one dimension that is 1-100 nm in diameter. At the nanoscale, novel properties emerge in materials, which has led to an increase in the incorporation of NMs in a diverse array of consumer products. Accordingly, NM exploitation has grown enormously over recent years and the use of NMs now spans diverse sectors (e.g. pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, food, electronics, automotive, construction, agriculture, and pigments/inks). In 2005 a Nanotechnology Consumer Product Inventory identified 54 products that had incorporated nanotechnology, and by 2014 this had increased to 1814 products. Despite the increased prevalence of NMs in the marketplace, there are still uncertainties surrounding their potential detrimental impact on human health. Toxicology testing has remained relatively unchanged for the last 50 years and has relied on the use of rodents. However, there is a need to reduce the reliance placed on rodent testing in nanotoxicology for ethical, financial and legislative reasons. Furthermore, there is evidence that rodent models do not always predict the human response and that there are problems with their reproducibility. Adoption of alternative, non-rodent models can allow a quicker, more ethical and often cheaper assessment of NM toxicity than using rodents. In vitro (cell based) models of varied complexity and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos are being increasingly used to assess the toxicity of NMs, and the benefits and limitations of these models for assessing the response of different systems (e.g. immune system, intestine, skin, lungs) will be discussed.
The presentation from this lecture can be viewed at the link below
https://www.dropbox.com/s/ylbhmwk92w99af2/Science%20Group%20Sep%2019%20Heli%20Johnston%20-%20Nanomaterials.pdf?dl=0

17 October 2019
Re-thinking health from the ground up, gut health, the human biome and our soils
Presented by Charlotte Maberly, FoodConnects
“…the food we eat is only as good as the soil from which it springs.” Lady Eve Balfour, 1940
For almost 100 years, dietary discourse in the UK has been dominated by anxious concern regarding the impact of food upon our body shape. We have experienced cyclical vilifications of fat, carbohydrates and sugar in the popular media, but conclusive or even coherent advice on healthy diets has remained elusive. Despite the volume of available information on diet and lifestyle, we are still experiencing unprecedented levels of obesity, heart disease, eating disorders and other dietary related illnesses.
In recent decades, it has been observed that we are perhaps approaching the task of healthy eating from an unhelpful perspective, and that the rise of ‘nutritionism’ (a reductionist, nutrient-focussed approach to diet) needs to be countered with a more holistic approach to food and eating.
Fascinating new research into the human biome supports this notion, and indicates that the bacterial communities in and on our bodies are also intrinsically linked with bacterial life in in our food and surrounding environment. This research looks far beyond nutritional values of individual foodstuffs to the potential significance of how we grow, prepare and eat our food.
In this session, we will explore the key points of understanding that this research has brought to light and how this may inspire significant changes in the way we consider health and diet.

The presentation from this lecture can be viewed at the link below
https://www.dropbox.com/s/9v76n94wcgrbi2w/Science%20Group%20Oct%2017%20Charlotte%20Maberley%20-%20Biome.pptx?dl=0

Further reading:
ENDERS, G. 2015 Gut: the inside story of our body’s most underrated organ.
MONTGOMERY, D & Bikle, A. 2015. The hidden half of nature: the microbial roots of life and health. W. W. Norton & Company.
SPECTOR, T., 2015. The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat. London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson.
WILSON, B. 2015. First bite: how we learn to eat. Fourth Estate.
LOWENFELDS, J. 2010. Teaming with microbes: the organic gardener’s guide to the soil food web. Timber Press, UK
SCRINIS, G. 2013. Nutritionism: the science and politics of dietary advice. Columbia University Press.
GOLDACRE, B. 2009. Bad science. Harper Perennial.
BLYTHMAN, J. 2015. Swallow this: serving up the food industry’s darkest secrets. Fourth Estate.
YONG, E. 2016. I Contain Multitudes: the microbes within us and a grander view of life. Ecco.

21 November 2019
Beetles, Bones and Bodies: How Forensic Entomology can aid death scene analysis and interpretation
Presented by Clive Warsop, Division of Pathology, University of Edinburgh
Most forensic entomological cases deal with post mortem issues, and the majority of those are seeking to understand and evaluate the minimum post mortem interval (PMI). This is the period between the point where insects have access to a cadaver and the moment the insect specimens were recorded and collected from the forensic context. In addition to PMI evaluation, insects can be effective in other legal circumstances. These include: locating the source of illegal drugs; understanding criminal movements or narrowing the search area for missing people; proving instances of negligence in the care of the very young or the very old and infirm; misapplication of pesticides; health issues relating to the food industry; and legal conservation and environmental issues. This lecture will focus on the use of insects for PMI estimation and the additional ways they can aid interpretation of the forensic context.